Laryngeal cartilages

Epiglottis consists of an elastic cartilage that enters the upper incision of the thyroid cartilage with a so-called stem and is attached from the inside to the plates of this cartilage, forming an epiglottic tubercle. The posterior surface of the epiglottis is covered with numerous pits, in which are located groin like mucous glands. In these glands inflammation often occurs, resulting in an epiglottis abscess.

Anatomy of the larynx

The larynx is a complex anatomical and physiological complex consisting of various tissue structures, with a developed network of blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. The inner surface of the larynx is covered by a thin mucosa consisting of a multilayer cylindrical ciliated epithelium. In places of mechanical stress (epiglottis, free edges of vocal folds, etc.), the larynx is covered with multilayered flat epithelium.

Laryngitis

Influenzal laryngitis

The preferred localization of influenza infection is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and larynx. Usually, the manifestation of influenza in the larynx region occurs in the form of catarrhal inflammation, but in more severe forms of influenza, hemorrhagic laryngitis is often observed, manifested by submucous hemorrhages, or fibrinous-exudative laryngitis with marked exudation of fibrin and ulceration of the mucosa. In young children, severe laryngotracheobronchitis occurs.

Laryngeal diphtheria

Gornic diphtheritic croup is observed in severe forms of diphtheria, manifested as signs of a common infectious disease. This form of diphtheria occurs as a result of a descending infection, nesting in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in bacilli carriers. Diphtheria croup often occurs in children younger than 5 years, especially weakened by childhood infections, beriberi, alimentary deficiency, etc.

Methods of functional examination of the larynx

The study of the voice function begins already during a conversation with the patient when assessing the timbre of voice and sound paraphenomena that occur when breathing and voice functions are disturbed. Afonium or dysphonia, stridorous or noisy breathing, distorted timbre of voice and other phenomena can indicate the nature of the pathological process.

X-ray examination of the larynx

Because of the fact that the larynx is a hollow organ, there is no need for contrast radiography, but in some cases, this method is used by spraying a radiopaque substance.

With the survey and tomographic radiography, direct and lateral projections are used. With a direct projection, the imposition of the spine on the cartilage of the larynx almost completely obscures them, so in this projection X-ray tomography is used, which takes the shadow of the spine behind the image plane, keeping only the radiopaque elements of the larynx in focus.

Direct laryngoscopy

Direct laryngoscopy allows you to examine the internal structure of the larynx in a direct image and to produce in a large enough amount of various manipulations on its structures (removal of polyps, fibroma, papillomas, cryosurgical or laser surgical methods), and to carry out emergency or planned intubation. The method is based on the use of a rigid directory, the introduction of which into the laryngopharynx through the oral cavity becomes possible due to the elasticity and compliance of surrounding tissues.