Open injuries of the larynx types are cut, chopped and gunshot.
Internal injuries mainly affect the entrance to the larynx, epiglottis, arytenoid cartilage, aryepiglottic folds and pear-shaped sinuses. Depending on the damaging factor, traumas are chemical, thermal and mechanical.
Chemical burns of the larynx are caused by strong alkalis (caustic soda) and acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric). Naturally, such burns are combined with burns in the mouth, throat and esophagus, the clinical manifestations of which are much heavier than in the larynx.
Etiology. Cicatricial stenosis of the larynx is one of the frequent complications of nonspecific and specific infectious diseases, as well as traumatic injuries.
Surgical interventions performed as an emergency for asphyxia (tracheotomy, conicotomy, etc.), can lead to pronounced laryngeal tracheal stenosis, which prevents decanulation. According to different data, 75% of stenosis of the larynx and trachea arise precisely as a result of urgent surgical interventions.
Laryngomalacia is a defect in the development of the larynx, during which the prolapse of the vestibule tissues occurs during inspiration, due to their abnormal compliance or due to neuromuscular laryngeal insufficiency.
Etiology. Consider two reasons for this defect - genetic and acquired. The first reason is due to the autosomal dominant nature of inheritance, the second - the effect of the effect on the fetus in the prenatal period of adverse factors, various neuromyogenic dysfunctions of the stomach and esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux).
The laryngeal congenital stridor is a syndrome that occurs in a newborn immediately after birth or in the first weeks of life, characterized by a pronounced impairment of the respiratory function of the larynx, accompanied by a stridoric sound.
The developmental defects of intralaryngeal formations develop as a result of the disturbance of resorption of the embryonic mesenchymal tissue that performs the laryngeal lumen in the first two months of fetal embryonic development. With the delay or absence of resorption of this tissue, partial or total larynx atresia, circular cylindrical stenoses, and most often complete or partial, located between the vocal folds, and the laryngeal diaphragms may occur.
Malformations of the larynx are rare. Some of them are incompatible with life, for example, with agenesis or complete atresia of the larynx. Others are not so fatal, but some of them can cause severe breathing disorders immediately after the birth of the child. These defects require immediate surgical intervention. These kinds of dysgenesis include: developmental defects of the epiglottis, congenital cysts of the throat and epiglottis, laryngeal diaphragm.
Those paralycles are divided into peripheral ones, caused by the defeat of the corresponding motor nerves, and the central ones that arise when the bulbar nuclei of these nerves are affected, the superior conducting paths and centers.
Peripheral of neurogenic paralysis of the internal muscles of the larynx is caused by the defeat of vagus nerves, in particular, their branches - recurrent nerves. In this regard, it should be recalled that the recurrent nerves contain fibers for both the single paired muscle that widens the vocal cavity and for its narrowers.
Myogenic (myopathic) disorders, which depend only on the pathological changes in the muscles themselves, are rare and can be caused by some helminthiases (trichinosis), infectious diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever), and banal chronic inflammation, congenital myopathy, fatigue as a result of the voice load.