Early recognition and treatment of precancerous diseases occupy an important place in the prevention of malignant neoplasms. Among the chronic diseases of the larynx, papillomatosis, chronic hyperplastic laryngitis and dyskeratosis of the laryngeal mucosa dominate. These diseases are of great importance in the genesis of laryngeal cancer, ie, they constitute a group of precancerous diseases.
Tracheostomy is an operation whose purpose is to create a temporary or persistent anastomosis of the tracheal cavity with the environment. The term "tracheotomy" should be understood as the dissection of the tracheal rings, i. E. Stage of tracheostomy. The obstruction for passing air to the trachea is left above the tracheostomy.
Conditions for tracheostomy can be divided into three groups:
Among benign tumors of the larynx, fibroids, papillomas and angiomas are most common.
Fibroma of larynx
Fibroma (fibrotic polyp) is located on the free edge of the vocal fold, on the border between the anterior and middle third. As a rule, it is mobile and has a thin stem. It grows slowly and basically does not reach large sizes. Depending on the number of vessels, the fibroid may be of a pink color of varying intensity.
Among all malignant tumors of the upper respiratory tract, laryngeal cancer is most common. Factors of the development of neoplasms are prolonged irritation of the larynx by chemical substances, alcohol, smoking, voice overstrain, etc. As a rule, normal tissue does not degenerate into malignant tissue. To this process prone diseases of the larynx are prone (papillomas, dyskeratosis of the mucous membrane - leukoplakia and pachidermy, broad-based fibroma, chronic hyperplastic laryngitis).
Aspiration of foreign bodies in the respiratory tract is mainly observed in childhood (from 90 to 97%), especially in children under 2 years (68% of all cases). This problem concerns doctors of different specialties - otorhinolaryngologists, pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, anesthesiologists, resuscitators.
The frequency of localization of foreign bodies in the larynx is 13%, in the trachea 22%, in the bronchi 65%.
X-ray examination of the larynx helps diagnose the disease, with a thickening of the soft tissue shadow, a change in the pattern of normal ossification of the cartilage. Chronic chondroperichondritis manifests as a "disordered calcification".
In the treatment of chondroperichondritis of the larynx, the leading place is occupied by antibiotics, sulfonamides, and also decongestants. In the case of abscesses, they should be opened. With the development of decompensated stenosis of the larynx, tracheostomy saves the life of the patient.
Inflammatory diseases of the larynx are divided into acute and chronic. Of acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx the most common are acute laryngitis. This term means catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane, the submucosal layer and the internal muscles of the larynx.
Tracheostomy is an operation whose purpose is to create a temporary or persistent communication of the tracheal cavity with the environment. The term "tracheotomy" should be understood only as the dissection of the trachea, i.e. Stage of tracheostomy.
Under the intubation of the larynx should be understood the introduction of special tubes in its lumen to ensure adequate external respiration.
Widely used was the technique of intubation of the larynx O'Dwyer. This method has played a huge role in helping children with diphtheria of the larynx and has not completely lost its importance to the present.
The larynx, being a part of the upper respiratory tract, completes it and passes into the trachea - the initial part of the lower respiratory tract. In an adult, the larynx is located in the V-VI cervical vertebra, in children III-IV cervical vertebrae, in the elderly, it can descend to the level of the VII cervical vertebra.