Esophageal dilation and cardiospasm

Esophageal dilation is characterized by a giant increase in its cavity with characteristic morphological changes in its walls with a sharp narrowing of its cardiac segment - cardiospasm.

Etiology of esophageal dilation.

The causes of megaesophagus are numerous internal and external pathogenic factors, as well as disorders of embryogenesis and neurogenic dysfunctions leading to its atony and total expansion.

Esophageal atony and paralysis

Atony and paralysis of the esophagus are conditions characterized by functional disruption of the neuromuscular system, the causes of which are so numerous that they do not lend themselves to complete systematization. In the opinion of some authors, these conditions occur rarely, other authors, on the contrary, argue that the dystonic phenomena of the esophagus occur very often, although they clinically show little of themselves.

Esophageal spasms

Esophageal spasms is a parakinetic impairment of motor function, due to toxic, microbial and viral neuritis innervating its nerves, as well as meningoencephalitis of a similar nature. Esophageal spasms can arise as a pathological viscero-visceral reflex caused by the presence of a pathological focus near the esophagus, or as a result of such factors as microtrauma, tachyphagia, the use of strong alcoholic beverages, excessively dense or hot food, stuck in the esophagus of a foreign body.

Clinical anatomy of the esophagus

The pharynx is connected to the stomach with the help of the esophagus, which in the adult person is a muscle channel about 10 inches in length. The esophagus begins at the level of the lower edge of the cervical vertebra and ends at the level of the thoracic vertebra where it passes into the stomach. There are three sections of the esophagus: a cervical length of 2 inches, thoracic - 6-7 inches, abdominal - 0,5-1,5 inches. The path from the incisors to the stomach in adults is 15-16 inches.

In the esophagus, three constrictions are distinguished:

Physiology and methods of examination of the esophagus

Physiology of the esophagus

The physiological function of the esophagus is the active pushing of food into the stomach. During swallowing, the mouth of the esophagus opens, and the food lump with the muscles of the pharynx is pushed into the initial section of the esophagus. The pushing of food masses through the esophagus is due to peristalsis of the muscular membrane. In this case, the circular muscles are successively contracted in the direction of the stomach, pushing the swallowed food lump.

Burns of the esophagus

In general, there are chemical burns of the esophagus with caustic substances - acids and alkalis, most often there are burns of the esophagus with acetic essence, somewhat less often - strong acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, etc. Alkali burns can be caused by sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), potassium and ammonia. Significantly less frequent thermal burns occur when hot liquids or a flame of fire enter the esophagus.


For a long time, this disease was attributed to a group of pharyngomycosis due to the common features with these diseases of the pharynx and oral cavity. The disease manifests itself spontaneously keratinization of the integument epithelium of the lymphadenoid formations of the pharynx, especially in the crypt region of the palatine tonsils, from which dense whitish-yellow spines grow extremely tightly to the surrounding tissues. When they are detached, a bleeding surface remains.