Actinomycosis of the pharynx

Actinomycosis - a chronic infectious disease of man and animals, caused by the introduction into the body of actinomycetes (radiant fungal parasites).

Epidemiology of pharyngeal actinomycosis.

Actinomycetes are widespread in nature, their main habitat is soil and plants. For humans and animals, some species of actinomycetes are pathogenic, among which there are both aerobes and anaerobes, people actinomycosis is relatively rare.

Candidiasis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa

Candidiasis is a fungal disease of the skin, mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx and internal organs caused by a yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida albicans. The development of candidiasis is facilitated by hypoparathyroidism, impaired liver function, pancreas, carbohydrate metabolism, and intestinal dysbacteriosis, which occurs most often with prolonged treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Often, the disease occurs with traumatic lesions of the mucous membrane.

Leptotrixose pharyngitis

This is an infectious disease of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, which proceeds in the form of acute pharyngitis or a sore throat with a defeat of the palatine tonsils. It occurs in weakened and mentally retarded children and people with impaired digestion. It is caused by the fungus Leptotrix buccalis. It appears on the entire surface of the pharynx and on the basis of the tongue the multiple colonies of the parasite in the form of white dots protruding above the surface of the mucous membrane and tightly adhering to it.

Bleeding from the larynx of the pharynx and larynx

Bleeding from the larynx of the pharynx and larynx occurs mainly from decaying cancerous tumors, often in patients exposed to radiation. The cause of bleeding can be vascular tumors of the larynx and trauma, in particular, iatrogenic - with intra-oral operations, especially when removing hemangiomas and biopsies.

Small guttural bleeding (hemoptysis) can be the result of voice overload, and also occur in diseases that lead to stagnant changes in the system of the inferior vena cava (heart defects, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.), and ulceration of the mucosa of various origins.

Bleeding from the oral part of the pharynx

Bleeding from the pharynx, which requires emergency care, can be the result of trauma (often operating), the presence of varicose veins in the palatal arch, posterior wall of the pharynx, or in the area of the lingual tonsil, ulceration, or decaying tumors. The cause of bleeding is easily established with pharyngoscopy.

If the throat is normal, then you should look for the source of secretion of the blood in the throat in other places (nose, esophagus, stomach, lower respiratory tract).

Bleeding from the nasal part of the pharynx

Bleeding from the nasal part of the pharynx occurs with its rarely observed external injuries, and can also occur from juvenile angiofibroma, disintegrating malignant tumors, or be a consequence of recent adenotomy. It should be borne in mind that bleeding, the sources of which are located in the nose of the pharynx, sometimes may show bleeding from the nose, but more often the blood drains down the back wall of the pharynx.

Tuberculosis of pharynx, root of tongue and larynx

Patients with a common, mostly exudative-ulcer, tuberculosis of the upper respiratory tract may need urgent help in connection with sharp pains in the throat, dysphagia, and sometimes stenosis of the larynx. The defeat of the upper respiratory tract is always secondary to the tuberculosis process in the lungs, but the latter is not always timely diagnosed.

Fresh, newly developed tuberculosis of the mucous membranes is characterized by hyperemia, infiltration, and often swelling of the affected parts, as a result of which the vascular pattern disappears.

Stenosis of the pharynx

Stenosis of the larynx and trachea

Emergency care has to be provided to patients not only with acute but also with chronic stenoses of the pharynx, larynx and trachea. The need for urgent intervention in chronic stenoses is due to late treatment or refusal of patients from the previously proposed tracheostomy, as well as the unexpected increase in long-term compensated stenosis.

Physiology of the pharynx

The pharynx is part of the digestive and respiratory tract and performs a number of vital functions:

  1. food intake - sucking, swallowing
  2. voice formation and speech formation
  3. breathing

Tonsils entering the lymphadenoid glotular ring play a role in the formation of local and systemic immunity.

During sucking, the soft sky closes the oral cavity from the pharynx and the baby breathes quietly. Then sucking and breathing ceases, and the baby swallows milk.