Examination of the oral part of the pharynx is called otorhapharyngoscopy and can be performed by an otorhinolaryngologist using frontal reflector illumination, and also without special illumination, i.e. Doctor of any specialty. Spatula is required for examination. At the beginning of the examination, attention should be paid to the condition of the oral cavity. In this case, you should assess the color of the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, tongue, teeth, the configuration of the hard palate.
Throat injuries are internal and external. External damage to the pharynx can be cut, chipped, bruised, gunshot. The latter are subdivided into bullet and fragmentation. All external injuries are combined since the wounding object damages the tissues of the face or neck. These wounds can be penetrating when all layers of the pharyngeal wall are injured or the injuring object damages the mucous membrane.
Etiology of the throat injuries
Chronic pharyngitis is a common disease. More than 30% of patients who go to the ENT clinics of the polyclinics suffer from chronic pharyngitis of various forms.
Acute inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa is rarely isolated. It is often combined with acute rhinitis, angina, laryngitis. Acute pharyngitis is often a symptom of ORLD, scarlet fever, measles.
Etiology of acute pharyngitis
Isolated acute pharyngitis can occur after general or local hypothermia, from taking acute food, from workers who have just started working in harmful chemical plants.
Foreign bodies often fall into the pharynx during food (fish and meat bones) or accidentally (coins, toys, particles of cereal spikes, dentures, nails, pins, etc.). The probability of falling foreign bodies increases in older people when using dental prostheses (they stop controlling the food lump).
Leptotrichosis (leptothrixia seu pharyngomycosis) occurs in 5-6% of patients with pharyngeal mycosis. This disease is not leptotrichosis in the full sense of the word since it is caused by a microorganism of bacterial origin - Leptotrichia buccalis. Normally, he saprophytes in the oral cavity.
Monocyte angina. Another name for this disease is "infectious mononucleosis", angina is one of its symptoms. The disease causes a virus, the origin of which is not yet fully known. According to the virus theory, the causative agent is a special lymphotropic virus, of which the larynx bacteria are a companion. Infection occurs by airborne droplets, the entrance gates are the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and throat cavity.
Acute tonsillitis is most often observed in patients with acute leukemia and less often in people with chronic blood diseases. In the first days of the disease with acute leukemia, hyperemia and an increase in palatine tonsils are observed; Picture of catarrhal angina. In the following days, there may appear manifestations of hemorrhagic, ulcerative-necrotic and gangrenous lesions of the tonsils, which can pass to the gum and other parts of the mucous membrane. Along with angina, the symptoms of acute or chronic leukemia are manifested in patients.
Acute peritonsillitis, as a rule, is accompanied by pronounced clinical symptoms.
In most patients, angina ends with complete recovery, but sometimes complications such as peritonsillitis, paratonzillar abscess, purulent cervical lymphadenitis, acute tonsilogenous sepsis, rheumatism, acute nephritis, acute pyelonephritis, nonspecific infectious polyarthritis.
peritonsillitis and paratonzillar abscess. Acute inflammation of the peripermaladic tissue is common, especially in young and strong people.