Of acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx, acute laryngitis is most common. This is a catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane, the submucosal layer and the internal muscles of the larynx.
Etiology of acute laryngitis
Acute laryngitis is relatively rarely seen as an independent disease. It is a manifestation of influenza, adenovirus infections, parainfluenza, in which the mucous membrane of the nose and throat, and sometimes the lower respiratory tract, is also involved in the inflammatory process. Thus, the respiratory viruses come first among the causes of the development of acute laryngitis.
Bacterial flora (primarily cocci) can also cause acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. However, it can cause the disease itself or in combination with respiratory viruses. Negative influence is also on voice overstrain, alcohol consumption, smoking.
The clinical picture of acute laryngitis is characterized by a sudden onset against a background of a normal general condition or a minor malaise. Body temperature remains normal or increases to low figures. There is a feeling of dryness, burning, perspiration, foreign body in the larynx, occasionally - soreness when swallowing. Sometimes there is a frequent unbearable convulsive cough. The voice quickly becomes tired, then becomes hoarse, hoarse, sometimes there is aphonia. A dry cough is replaced by moist with significant discharge first mucous, and then mucopurulent sputum.
When laryngoscopy is observed hyperemic, swollen mucous membrane, vocal folds pink or even bright red, thickened, in the larynx lumen - an astringent secret in the form of mucopurulent cords. Often, during phonation, one can detect a full-scale clamping of the vocal folds.
Diagnosis of acute laryngitis is simple and is performed during laryngoscopy.
Treatment of acute laryngitis
If acute laryngitis occurs during an acute infectious disease, appoint a bed of home treatment, issue a temporary disability sheet. As a rule, the treatment is carried out in a clinic without being released from work except for the persons of the voice professions (teachers, artists, speakers) who are issued with a temporary incapacity for work, even with laryngitis, which occurs at normal body temperature and undisturbed general condition.
Patients are advised not to use spicy and hot food, alcohol, smoking. Assign a voice mode.
Codeine, dionine, is prescribed to eliminate a cough and unpleasant sensations in the larynx. Dilution of mucus and elimination of dryness is achieved due to the intake of alkaline mineral waters in a heated form or half diluted with hot milk. In the presence of an excessive amount of thick astringent discharge, expectorants are shown.
A good anti-inflammatory effect is provided by local warming in the form of steam inhalations, warming compresses, UHF and microwave therapy to the larynx region.
Inhalations can be not just steam, but with the addition of medicinal substances: oil, alkaline. Effective use of aerosols with solutions of antibiotics, as well as with astringent sputum - proteolytic enzymes. Pharmaceutical industry produces ready-mix for pulverization and inhalation of the larynx.
Widely used infusion into the larynx of warm medicinal substances (instillations), which is carried out with the help of laryngeal syringes. For instillations use 1% oily menthol solution, antibiotics, hydrocortisone, vasoconstrictors (several drops of 1-2% solution of ephedrine or 0.1% solution of adrenaline are added to the solution), 3% solution of protargol or collargol.
In the treatment of acute laryngitis, distractions and sweatshops are used: hot foot baths, mustard plasters for calves, larynx, and thorax.
In the event that the disease acquires a protracted course, and local treatment is ineffective, anti-inflammatory agents of general action are prescribed: antibiotics, antihistamines, calcium preparations, ascorbic acid.
Observance of the correct mode and treatment promotes complete elimination of the process in the larynx within 5-10 days.