Glanders is an infectious disease of animals and humans, characterized by the development of septicopyemia with damage to the skin, mucous membranes and other organs and tissues.
Along with the basic forms of anthrax (cutaneous, pulmonary and intestinal), this disease can primarily manifest as a lesion of the upper respiratory tract, including the pharynx and larynx.
The preferred localization of influenza infection is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and larynx. Usually, the manifestation of influenza in the larynx region occurs in the form of catarrhal inflammation, but in more severe forms of influenza, hemorrhagic laryngitis is often observed, manifested by submucous hemorrhages, or fibrinous-exudative laryngitis with marked exudation of fibrin and ulceration of the mucosa. In young children, severe laryngotracheobronchitis occurs.
Of acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx, acute laryngitis is most common. This is a catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane, the submucosal layer and the internal muscles of the larynx.
The inflammatory process in the larynx can spread to the perichondrium and cartilage, as a result, the laryngeal chondro-perichondritis is developing. Chondro-perichondritis can be primary (it causes hematogenous infection) and secondary (first the mucous membrane of the larynx is affected, and then the perichondrium and cartilage).
Distinguish chondro-perichondritis and diffuse, acute and chronic. Basically, both sheets of perichondria are affected, therefore the division of chondroperi chondrite into external and internal is to some extent conditional.
Phlegmonous laryngitis is an acute inflammation of the larynx, characterized by the proliferation of a purulent process not only in the submucosa but also in the muscles and ligaments of the larynx, sometimes the perichondrium and cartilages are involved in this process.
Etiology of phlegmonous laryngitis
The cause of the disease can be laryngeal angina, external injuries of the larynx and damage to its mucous membrane (foreign body, chemical, and thermal burns, etc.). Supercooling plays an important role in the development of the disease.
Treatment of chronic laryngitis necessarily includes the elimination of all harmful factors contributing to the development of this disease, especially overvoltage of the vocal apparatus. It is necessary to sanitize foci of infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. If there is difficulty in nasal breathing, it is necessary to normalize it.
Chronic laryngitis usually occurs as a result of untreated acute laryngitis. Often, its occurrence is due to pathological changes in the nose, paranasal sinuses, throat, and lower respiratory tract. Among the most frequent causes of chronic laryngitis, it is necessary to allocate increased voice load, smoking, various professional harmfulness, abuse of alcohol or food irritating the mucous membrane.
Among benign tumors of the larynx, fibroids, papillomas and angiomas are most common.
Fibroma of larynx
Fibroma (fibrotic polyp) is located on the free edge of the vocal fold, on the border between the anterior and middle third. As a rule, it is mobile and has a thin stem. It grows slowly and basically does not reach large sizes. Depending on the number of vessels, the fibroid may be of a pink color of varying intensity.
Inflammatory diseases of the larynx are divided into acute and chronic. Of acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx the most common are acute laryngitis. This term means catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane, the submucosal layer and the internal muscles of the larynx.