Primary tuberculosis of the larynx is rare, it is often secondary to the primary localization of infection in the lungs, which occurs with the involvement of the intrathoracic lymph nodes. Tuberculosis of the larynx occurs in approximately 10% of patients with the initial form of pulmonary tuberculosis, in 30% of persons with a long course of this infection and in 70% of cases with the autopsy of those who died from it. Tuberculosis of the larynx affects children less often, and at the age of less than 10 years - very rarely.
Patients with a common, mostly exudative-ulcer, tuberculosis of the upper respiratory tract may need urgent help in connection with sharp pains in the throat, dysphagia, and sometimes stenosis of the larynx. The defeat of the upper respiratory tract is always secondary to the tuberculosis process in the lungs, but the latter is not always timely diagnosed.
Fresh, newly developed tuberculosis of the mucous membranes is characterized by hyperemia, infiltration, and often swelling of the affected parts, as a result of which the vascular pattern disappears.
Tuberculosis lesions of the nasal, pharynx and laryngeal mucosa are secondary diseases. It develops in patients with tuberculosis with primary lesions of the lungs, bones and lymph nodes. Most often, infection of the mucosa occurs spasmodically, that is, by sputum in the presence of an open form of tuberculosis. Significantly less often the infection gets into the mucous membrane with lymphogenous and even less often - hematogenous way. Most often, tuberculosis affects the mucous membrane of the larynx, mainly in men aged 20-40 years.